Winsteps constructs Rasch measures from simple rectangular data sets, usually of persons and items. After initial familiarization, it is straightforward to use in combination with other software. Item types that can be combined in one analysis include dichotomous, multiple-choice, and multiple rating-scale and partial credit items. Paired comparisons and rank-order data can also be analyzed. Missing data is no problem. Winsteps is designed as a tool that facilitates exploration and communication. The structure of the items and persons can be examined in depth. Unexpected data points are identified and reported in numerous ways. Powerful diagnosis of multidimensionality through principal components analysis of residuals detects and quantifies substructures in the data. The working of rating scales can be examined thoroughly, and rating scales can be recoded and items regrouped to share rating scales as desired. Measures can be fixed (anchored) at pre-set values. Winsteps is intended for practitioners who must make practical and quick decisions along the path to constructing effective tests, and who must then communicate their results usefully to end users. The developers of Winsteps use the program daily in their own work, and are continually adding new features as a result of their own experience and feedback from users. Typical applications include educational tests, psychological assessments, attitude surveys, patient performance protocols, and calibrating adaptive-test item banks. Winsteps can process up to 10,000,000 persons, 30,000 items, and each item can have a rating scale of up to 255 categories. Training seminars are held regularly. Student/evaluation versions of Winsteps can be downloaded free from Its DOS-based predecessor, Bigsteps, with a capacity of 20,000 persons and 1,000 items, can also be downloaded free. Operating System Required: Windows.


ConQuest is a computer program for fitting item response and latent regression models. It provides a comprehensive and flexible range of item response models to analysts, allowing them to examine the properties of performance assessments, traditional assessments and rating scales. ConQuest makes available the most up-to-date psychometric methods of multifaceted item response models, latent regression models, and drawing plausible values. It provides an integration of item response and regression analysis. Models ConQuest can fit: Rasch’s Simple Logistic Model, Rating Scale Model, Partial Credit Model, Ordered Partition Model, Linear Logistic Test Model, Multifaceted Models, Generalized Unidimensional Models, Multidimensional Item Response Models, and Latent Regression Models. Operating system required: Windows.


Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Models. For analysing assessment and attitude questionaire data. Operating System Required: Windows.


jMetrik is a free and open source computer program for psychometric analysis. It features a user-friendly interface, integrated database, and a variety of statistical procedures. The interface is intuitive and easy to learn. It also scales to the experience of the user. New users can quickly learn to implement psychometric procedures though point-and-click menus. Experienced users can take advantage of the jMetrik command structure and write command files for executing an analysis. jMetrik’s embedded database increases productivity by providing a common data format for all of its methods. There is no need to reformat or reshape data for each procedure. The database is the primary mechanism for data management. There is virtually no limit to the sample size or number of tables that can be stored in the database. Users are only limited by the amount of storage on their computer. After importing data into jMetrik, users can create subsets of data by selecting examinees or variables. Users can also create new tables by saving the results of an analysis in the database for further processing. Statistical methods available in jMetrik include frequencies, correlations, descriptive statistics and a variety of graphs. Psychometric methods include classical item analysis, reliability estimation, test scaling, differential item functioning, nonparametric item response theory, Rasch measurement models, and item response theory linking and equating. New methods are added to each new version of the program. jMetrik is a pure Java application. It runs on Windows, Max OSX, and Linux operating systems. Installation files include the needed version of Java Virtual Machine. An additional system requirement is 256MB of available memory.


RASCAL analyzes data files (ASCII format) of test item responses produced by optical mark readers (scanners) or by manual data entry — the same format used by ITEMAN and XCALIBRE — to estimate the item difficulty and person (ability) parameters based on the one-parameter (Rasch) logistic IRT model for dichotomous data. RASCAL can center the scale of the parameter estimates on difficulty (i.e., a true Rasch scale) or on ability (a three-parameter IRT model with fixed discrimination and zero guessing). RASCAL automatically transforms the IRT score scale (in a linear fashion) to make your score reports more interpretable. The software can also “fix” certain item parameters to specified values and automatically calibrate the remaining items onto that scale. This feature can be used for linking tests and item pools. For each item, RASCAL estimates an item difficulty parameter, a Pearson chi-square fit statistic, and the standard error associated with the difficulty estimate. RASCAL also generates a table for converting number-correct (raw) scores into IRT (ability) scores. The score frequency table shows, for each maximum-likelihood estimate of ability, its standard error, the frequency and cumulative frequency, percentile, and the transformed scaled score. RASCAL can also record maximum-likelihood (IRT) scores for each examinee to an external text file that can be used by other statistical packages. RASCAL provides a graphical “items-by-persons” map, displaying a side-by-side comparison of the distributions of item difficulties and person abilities. Also provided are graphical displays of the IRT-based test response function (test characteristic curve) and test information function. Operating System Required: Windows.


Facets is designed to handle really tough applications of unidimensional Rasch measurement. It constructs measures from complex data involving heterogeneous combinations of examinees, items, tasks, judges along with further measurement and structural facets. It is designed to handle flexibly combinations of items of different formats in one analysis. Item types include dichotomies, rating scales with up to 255 categories, Poisson counts and Bernoulli trials. Multiple different measurement models can be included in the same analysis, including paired-comparisons, rank- order, rating scales, partial credit and dichotomizations involving from 1 to 255 facets. Measures can also be fixed (anchored) individually or by group mean, facilitating equating and linking across test sessions. Quality-control fit evaluation of all measures is provided. Unexpected data points are identified. Bias, differential item functioning and interactions can be measured. Weighting schemes can be implemented. Up to 1 million examinees etc. can be included in one analysis. Typical applications have over 90% missing data. Since organizing the data for input to Facets and then interpreting its output can be challenging, it is recommended that simpler approaches be tried first. Facets has been used successfully to construct measures for medical staff performance, patient performance, public speaking, sports performance by individuals and teams, and consumer preferences. Training seminars are held regularly. Student/evaluation versions of Facets can be downloaded free from Operating System Required: Windows.

Further Lists

For a further list of programs see